A-IOS Application: Integral Blues (iBlues) – DRAFT ver 1.0


“Even the blues, which can seem so profound and true at 3 in the morning after a night of drinking, may sound infected with a debilitating strain of self-pity when heard at 9 in the morning over a cup of coffee.”

– Tom Valeo, Existential Memoir professor


I’ve been an integral freak ever since I’ve read A Brief History of Everything way back in 1996. Since then I’ve often wondered how to express and give back to the community the jewels I’ve learned from Integral Philosophy. I don’t have an academic head or a philosopher’s meta-language to write mind-blowing essays about Holons, Levels, Waves, Streams, or Post-Metaphysical-Quantum-Tetra-Evolution-jargon. I like reading those, by the way. But I can’t write it. And I don’t want to. So instead, I decided to focus on applying those ideas into the wonderful world of Samsara.

For the past 3 years I’ve been infatuated with ‘the Blues.’ I’m infected with it from my head down to my shoes. I never plan on becoming an accomplished blues artist, although I have daydreams jamming with B.B. King, Buddy Guy, and Stevie Ray. I just found myself falling in love with it more and more as I listen to various howlin’ blues guys and gals pour their hearts and souls in some lonely local bar in limbo.

I didn’t have the voice or outline to put these childish ideas into writing, until now. After reading Matthew Dallman’s essay on Constructing an Artistic Integral Operating System (A-IOS)[1], wasabe! I found the template I was looking for.

There are other examples I could use from other accomplished artists, but I don’t like to look far to aid me with this expression. So instead, I will use ‘a holon’ I’m most familiar with: me. This way, I would be more authentic with my first-hand experiences and have full responsibility of whatever I’m going to share to the community. As of this writing, I still consider myself as a ‘hack’—a wannabe-arsty-fartsy-mojo-voodoo-chile. I am not an accomplished musician by any sense of the word; never even performed in public; and still learning my craft. My experiences are limited within the walls of our small town home. And I’m sure that there are teenagers in my neighborhood who could smoke me in their sleep when it comes to playing the guitar. But I’ve discovered an avenue of expression. An expression I would like to share to those who care enough to listen.

For the last few days I was brooding and brewing this idea. So today I found my yuppie ass sitting in Starbucks, outlining the contents of this essay. I like to do my writings in bookstores and coffee shops, not only because of the lattes and mocha frapuccino foams, but also so that I could take a break from time to time and appreciate the dynamic scenery (read: checkout people) instead of staring at the lonely walls of my elevated den. Interestingly, Playboy just came out with an issue featuring the ‘Women of Starbucks’ (see September 2003 issue, and don’t ask me how I knew). So now I can’t look at those juvenile souls at the cashier and coffee station with innocent eyes anymore. “Damn you Hefner. Damn youuu.”

And so, here it is, my first attempt in developing ‘an application’ that will run fluidly and compatibly with other more powerful and useful applications running on top of an A-IOS platform. May this humble expression shake your booty, juggle your boobies, spill your guts, make you nuts… and rock your world.

How iBlues can you get?

I often ask myself, “Why choose ‘the blues’ in applying the Integral theory?” My quick answer is, “Because it’s so freakin’ easy!” Blues is one of the simplest forms of music—it’s the Zen of Rock n’ Roll; the Rigpa of Jazz. And it’s cheap too. All you need are: a rusted acoustic guitar, three-chords, a twelve-bar structure, a pentatonic minor scale, a grumpy-growling bedroom voice, and you already have a one-man blues band. If you want to make it less complicated, a cheap harmonica will do—although I can’t imagine anyone playing harp and singing at the same time. Now that takes some talent.

My more complex answer, however, was articulated beautifully by none other than the guitar god himself, Jimi Hendrix: “Blues is easy to play, but hard to feel.”[2] The language of music is indeed a fertile ground for self-expression, and arguably, blues is the epitome of expression of modern and contemporary music. In fact, “so pervasive has been the influence of the blues on pop music since the early 1960s that it is already difficult to recognize it.”[3] This insightful observation was true in the 60s, and especially today. The blues had been assimilated by contemporary society and can now be heard everywhere: on radio, MTV, bars, malls, restaurants, bookstores, coffee shops, and urinals. The blues had been buried so deep in our collective psyche that, with the exception of music aficionados and those who are ‘in the know,’ the majority simply don’t notice it anymore. Therefore, the goals of iBlues are: to look back at the roots, to educate musicians and audiences how to feel again, to express those feelings in the most articulate form of musical language, while being ‘integrally aware’ of the consequences of its rhythms, shaman-like foot-stomping, oxygen-deprived harp blowing, out-of-this-earth string bending, and existential lyrical rhymes.

iBlues v1.0 running on A-IOS v1.0

“How high or deep or wide is my consciousness that’s imprinting these artifacts?”

Crafting music is similar to architecture.[4] Architects use ‘stone in space’ to create buildings and magnificent monuments, musicians use ‘sound in time’ to build cottages and palaces of melodic sound waves.

Stravinsky said, “I consider that music is, by its very nature, powerless to express anything at all, whether a feeling, an attitude of mind, a psychological mood, a phenomenon of nature, etc… if, as is nearly always the case, music appears to express something, this is only an illusion, and not a reality.”[5]

My gut tells me that Stravinsky was of course speaking from a different vantage point (say, the non-dual or absolute?). So he was partially correct with this observation. However, the ‘artifacts’ produced by such great composers had such powerful and lasting impact on its audiences and peers, whether they’re aware of it or not.

Music, from its inception, has been one of the most important artifacts of humanity—“The definite sounds of music are different from the indefinite sounds of nature: rolls on the timpani do not sound exactly like thunder, nor chromatic scales on the violins exactly like the wind. Nevertheless, even here, the composer has certain compensatory advantage: he can reproduce the sensation of physical movement which the painter can only suggest.” [6] The idea of iBlues therefore is to be as expressive as possible not only in reproducing physical movements, but also the feelings, the angst, the revelations, and the insights, in short, the level of consciousness of the artifact-maker.

The composer’s and performer’s state of mind or depth of consciousness is imprinted in the creation and performance of any musical piece. This is especially true in the language of the blues, which is often blurted out and improvised.

However, instead of wallowing in stereotypical despair of toiling 24/7, losing a job, a wife, a car, a mojo, and a cat, iBlues proposes to take the lyrical tracks up a notch. Instead of just singin’ ‘bout ‘loss’ and ‘aloneness’, iBlues artists are encouraged to blurt out their own ultimate concerns: death, freedom, isolation, and meaninglessness. [7] The general idea is to sing about them in order to bring those concerns at the surface of one’s consciousness, and then, transcend those existential givens altogether with the artist’s own, or even borrowed, spiritual insights, while taking the audiences for a wild ride.

Instead of classic lyrics like, “I’ve been downhearted baby, ever since the day we met,”[8] iBlues artist screams, “When you wake up in the morning and you walk outside the door, do you ever wonder what the hell you’re livin’ for?” [9] Instead of being jealous and obsessive like, “You better leave my little girl alone,”[10] iBlues artist will holler, “genuine laughter, freedom day, floating, flying, 3 feet away.”[11] Of course the classic blues will always be appreciated, honored, and respected, especially lyrics such as, “I gave you seven children, and now you wanna give ‘em back!” [12] Now, how can you top bluesy lyrics like that!?

“How effective am I in creating an artifact that will evoke the same level of consciousness in the viewer?”

The sad, miserable, ranting of blues artists is unmistakable. We may dance and get jiggy with it, but the essence of the music revolves around despair and sadness. The language of the blues is very effective in conveying not only gloom, but also joy, and playfulness. But in general, when people hear about the blues, the first image that comes to mind is that of ‘an old black dude strummin’ his six strings, wallowin’ for losin’ his mojo.’ iBlues likes to preserve this image, because this image IS THE ‘icon’ of the blues—one of the most important contributions of the African-American culture. However, iBlues wants to echo the mantra of one of blues’s precious children. Stevie Ray Vaughan said that his goal was “to take the ‘color’ out of the blues.” By 1990, he had accomplished that mission decisively.[13] The intention of iBlues is to continue with that tradition and create similar, but ‘integrally aware’ blues artifacts.

To be as effective as possible in creating such artifacts, iBlues will attempt to capture not only the mood of the artist, but also the mood of the immediate surroundings. For example, if the music was inspired by rain or a thunderstorm, then actual sounds of rain and thunderstorm will be added on one of the tracks at the time of mix-down. If looking at nature was the inspiration, then sounds of nature (e.g. birds, wind, trees, etc…) should be added to the composition. If it was inspired by downtown activities, then the hustle and bustle of downtown noise should be mixed in the background. And if the inspiration was born of a meditative revelation, then chanting, mantra, pointing out instructions, ringing bell, or astral winds should be added at the time of recording. These are just some examples on how to add more spices (think wasabe) to an already appetizing blues meal.

I have attempted to do such a task in one of my novice home recordings. Recently, when I turned 30, I got a little blue, and was inspired to compose a short blues music to capture the brief moment of sadness, a spark of gratitude, and wisdom of acceptance. I aptly named this composition decade 3 [14]. And since it was a rainy Monday morning, I decided to capture the mood by adding the sound of raindrops on track 3 (thanks to our aquarium filtration system). Nothing fancy, but the elements are there. Accomplished blues artists could take this idea and go much further.

However, it should not be only limited with audio. During stage performance, or when technology makes it possible to include video (e.g. the graphics display on Windows Media) with the music CD, the artists could arrange synchronized projections of images or dynamic graphics in the background, based on the mood or inspiration of the song. The sense of smell (e.g. incense), and taste (treats?), can also be added whenever appropriate. The more senses iBlues artists stimulate in their audiences, the better the expression, and hopefully, the deeper the level of consciousness will be accessed.

The purpose of adding these effects is to take the audiences one step closer to the experiences of the iBlues artist. To have the audiences not only witness, listen, and dance to the performance, but also to partake and share the level/stage/state of consciousness of the artist at the moment of expression.

iBlues v1.1 running on A-IOS v2.0

“How can I cultivate my artistic outer world as a singular? As part of a plural?”

An iBlues artist is aware that he is ‘operating as a holon.’ He has a healthy obsession with his craft and attempts to cover all ‘quadrants.’ He has a chosen spiritual practice, or he treats his music as his spiritual practice, and gets his spiritual highs every time he “strum a new song into the world.”[15] Either way, he is informed about the importance of balancing the physical, mental, and spiritual domains of existence. He also has a community of kindred spirits from which he will continue to draw strength, inspiration, and insights.

The majority of serious guitar players are aware of the ‘transcend and include’ learning process of their craft, even if they’re not using AQAL jargon. Let’s take Stevie Ray Vaughan (SRV) as a more concrete example. A devout Christian, and a self-volunteer for drug rehabilitation, SRV took the blues to a new altitude and earned a much-deserved slot in a dance-and-pop-dominated MTV. But in spite of his success, SRV stayed within his roots and continued to honor his influences. “Vaughan’s razor-edged leads were pure blues, relying heavily on Albert King for tones and riffs. Texas Flood revealed a debt to blues masters such as Jimmy Reed, Magic Sam, Lonnie Mack, Buddy Guy, and Hubert Sumlin, and paid that debt with interest. On tour… Stevie riveted audiences with his passionate homages to Jimi Hendrix, including ‘Voodoo Chile,’ ‘Little Wing,’ and ‘Third Stone from the sun.’ While countless guitarist have been influenced by the creative genius of Hendrix, few have attempted to cover any of his songs… But what set Stevie above other pretenders to the Hendrix throne was his ability to play rhythm and lead simultaneously—like Jimi, he fired a nonstop barrage of chords, licks, hammer-ons, pull-offs, and unorthodox tricks at the listener. Vaughan’s guitar technique didn’t just impress; it overwhelmed.”[16]

An accomplished iBlues artist uses SRV (or other guitar gods) as example, while paying his debt to the language of the blues, with interest compounded. This does not mean that the artist should try hard to match the technical prowess of such guitar gods, although it is possible. The main purpose of an iBlues artist is to be aware of his various influences and be able to draw from them whenever the need arises. But then again, this will not be possible without a certain amount of mastery of his instrument. So it is imperative for him to take practice seriously. He is aware that “…mastery isn’t reserved for the supertalented or even for those who are fortunate enough to have gotten an early start. It’s available to anyone who is willing to get on the path and stay on it—regardless of age, sex, or previous experience.”[17]

An iBlues artist, however, has an advantage over other stereotypical blues artists. They have a working knowledge and first-hand experiences of Integral Transformative Practice (ITP)[18]. ITP is his anchor so that he won’t be buried too deeply in the despair of his chosen art form. (note: please refer to Leonard’s and Murphy’s The Life We Are Given and/or Ken Wilber’s One Taste for more details on ITP.)

In my own application of iBlues, I try to mimic as close as possible (more of cop-out and include) the examples set by not only the blues pioneers but also artists from other art domains such as painting, writing, and poetry. Some of my practices are as follows:

1. No set practice time but ‘noodle’ around and play almost every day. Sometimes lasting for hours, sometimes just minutes, depending on the mood and situation.

2. Cop-out SRV, Hendrix, and Satriani licks, mostly by ear, just because I’m too lazy to read tablature (note: reading tablature is very important kids. do what i say and not what i do.)

3. My own modified affirmation: “Every day and every practice I’m getting better and better at playing the guitar.”

4. And listening… ahh… this is what I do best. I learn more from listening than by actual practice. My Essential SRV is welded-shut inside my Sony Xplod car CD player… never getting tired of listening to mad licks of a dead man. It never fails to give me the chills no matter how many times I hear those gut-wrenching leads over and over and over…

And as much as I possibly can, I try to incorporate ITP in my lifestyle. I have chronicled my ITP in detail in one of my Existential Memoir Essays, entitled What the F&%k Now?[19].

“How can I cultivate my artistic inner world as a singular? As part of a plural?”

For the iBlues artist, improvising and composing is as natural as breathing. The blues language is improvisation to the core. The simple structure of the blues serves as challenge to an iBlues artist. Compared with other advanced form of music such as jazz and classical, there are only so much one can do with three chords and a pentatonic minor scale. But therein lies the rub. The simplicity of the blues can be compared to the simple and rigid structure of a haiku. A three-lined structured poetry didn’t stop the enlightened sages from creating beautiful and elegant passages that are now celebrated by the Japanese culture and the literary world. So therefore, some injunctions for iBlues artists are as follows:

1. Study and take the simple form of the blues, learn to improvise, and write poetry or lyrical rhymes over the music.

2. A thorough understanding of the history of the blues, its people, and its heroes is highly recommended. Every iBlues artist should at least have a copy and read The Story of the Blues by Paul Oliver and Blues for Dummies by Lonnie Brooks, Cub Koda and Wayne Baker Brooks.

Playing the blues with knowledge of its roots will provide deeper avenues of expression. And this expression will rub off to the audiences because of the more authentic articulation.

For the iBlues artist, the blues is one of his vehicles in his spiritual journey. Helping him to become ‘tetra aware’ in facing his existential givens, and then soaring above and learning from them like a bad case of hangover.

iBlues v1.2 running on A-IOS v3.0

iBlues artist is not only aware of the quadrants, but also cognizant of the different streams that develop within the quadrant. Practicing ITP will equip the iBlues artist to become more sensitive in ‘identifying’ and ‘integrating’ these different streams.

The Contemplative Stream

“How aware can I be of my art-making practice?”

To become more receptive and aware of creating artifacts within his chosen platform, an iBlues artist engages himself in his chosen spiritual or contemplative practice (e.g. zen, vajra dance, lucid dreaming, centering prayer, etc..). Any insights from these practices will be used in creating more expressive and ‘uplifting’ as well as ‘illusion-shattering’ blues songs. Also, an iBlues artist keeps a journal or diary of his progress and ideas to help him keep track of his learning process.

In my case, I keep an online chronicle of my blues adventures, which I aptly called Insomniac Blues. [20] To the outside observer, this may seem egotistical, childish, and self-serving. Well, it is all of the above, but it also helps me to look back at my progress, share the journey with other enthusiasts, and identify the turning point of my learning. I consider this as a valuable tool on my way to ‘mastery.’ And it’s kinda fun too learning the technology and skills involved in creating an online presence.

The Vital Stream

“How much can I connect my awareness with my technique?”

As I’ve pointed out in iBlues v1.1, practice is central in the development of technique. And technique is crucial in connecting the artist’s awareness to his instrument, and especially to his audiences. Fluid improvisation is only possible once an artist has a certain amount of skill on his instrument. The more technique, the more fluid the improvisation; the more fluid the improvisation, the more one can forget about technique. This paradox is no mystery to all accomplished artists in all artistic domains.

Also, as in the Contemplative Stream, an iBlues artist should deepen his practice of meditation or other spiritual practice so he could dig deeper into the subconscious and the more fertile soil of the unconscious, and then wrap those insights with a blue wrapping paper.

The Technical Stream

“How skillful can I be with technique and craft?”

As in the Vital Stream, an iBlues artist should have a certain amount of mastery of his craft in order to express and share his awareness to his audiences. Although it is possible to play blues without knowing how to read music sheets or tablatures, a well-rounded iBlues artist will take the time to learn this indispensable tool. It will help him not only to cop-out his influences, but also dissect their playing styles so he could create his own styles by mix and matching, and improvising. The importance of a community is also essential to the learning process. One way to speed-up the learning process is to form a blues band, or participate in online communities. [21] Learning with peers having the same passion is not only more fun but more productive in the long run.

In my case however, I did it the hard way. Like most guitar hacks, I learned guitar on my own—reading music books and coping-out chords and leads from tablatures. This approach, however, did not take me very far (that’s why I’m still a hack!). I found it very difficult and I have developed lot of bad habits in playing (note: again kids, do what i say…) There was a time in my playing that I recognized my need for a qualified teacher. So I took lessons from a blues guy named “Bob.” It was only a short stint but I noticed immediate improvements. I literally woke up one morning and found myself really playing the blues, improvising, and ‘feeling’ it. From out of the blue I got the blues. And the blues was etched and stayed with me since then. Like I said, I still consider myself a hack with a lot of bad guitar habits, but I like to think that every day I pickup my guitar and noodle around, I’m moving closer and closer to the unreachable goal of mastery.

As of now, I’m also trying to learn how to play cross harp blues. Any musical instrument requiring the regulation of breath (or ‘prana’ to all you eastern hacks) is very expressive, even more expressive at times than bending some strings. I found that adding more instruments to my blues home recordings added more dimension in my expression. I encourage other iBlues artists to pickup another instrument and try experimenting on it. You’ll be surprised.

The Critical Stream

“How skillful can I be with the theories and business of my art?”

Learning the musical theory of the blues is a big step. Learning the history of the blues, its origin, its people, and its culture is a giant step, not only in its expression, but also in its appreciation, which can later extend to creating businesses such as selling records, writing books, consulting, or landing gigs.

The blues was born out of bondage and slavery, that’s why its feelings and expressions are so strong, physically, emotionally, mentally, and spiritually. Getting to know the reason of desperation and sadness of the blues will make it easier for the iBlues artist to transcend and include that period of darkness in humanity. However, iBlues artists will no longer sing about plantations, hard labor, and slavery (although they still could). They will sing of a greater slavery that binds humanity ever since they’ve become self-aware.

The Public Stream

“How much can I connect my theory and business skills with my immersion in the greater art world?”

In my own iBlues application, my dream is to go on tour and hit all the Borders and Starbucks in my neighborhood—blues bars and restaurants to follow. (note to self: need more practice.) In order to accomplish this feat more authentically, I will need to rely heavily on ALL of the streams of iBlues v1.2, plus the knowledge gained in iBlues v1.0 and iBlues v1.1.

The Ethical Stream

“How deep is my immersion in the greater art world and interpretive culture?”

A community of like-minded artists is a fertile ground for healthy competition, brainstorming, creativity, and critical appreciation. An iBlues artist is both a mentor and a student no matter how advanced his level is. The company of an iBlues artist will not only be limited to his art form, but also include artists from other domains. They will facilitate his growth as a well-rounded artist even if his expression is confined to the structure of the blues.

I have attempted to outline this iBlues application so that, if and when I get the opportunity to crash one of the Integral Salon of Art potluck, then I have some appetizer to put on the integral banquet.

iBlues v?.? running on A-IOS v?.?

(Space reserved for future A-IOS and iBlues patches and upgrades…)


The Blues is originally a spiritual song (refer to history book)… iBlues goal is to get back to that expression and magnify it a hundred- or even a thousand-fold…

Holosync + iBlues = PAAARTTTTTTYYY!!

Conclusion (or I-IV-V turn-around)

Artists that had gone before never needed the fancy jargon of A-IOS, or Integral Theory, to create their masterpieces, which, in one way or another, shaped the world that we live in today. But whether aware of it or not, those artists have embodied the practices and insights that A-IOS had differentiated and integrated. The advantage of today’s (and future) ‘integrally aware’ artists over their timeless peers is their knowledge of the AQAL framework and the level of consciousness of the community operating behind the theories and its applications. Integral artists are not only confined to their domains but will have access to other integral domains within and without their chosen art form.

iBlues does not intend to replace the blues. It is not some kind of musical fusion. The blues can be compared with a spiritual tradition handed down from masters to masters. iBlues does not want to undo that Kosmic pattern. It doesn’t want to attempt to create a watered-down version by mixing it with other musical styles. It doesn’t want to fuck up the blues beyond all recognition. Its purpose is to stick to its roots while honoring and including its already rich and expressive art form. iBlues adds more depth to it, not by adding more foreign notes, wayward chords, and/or towering musical bars, but by raising the consciousness of the artists making them more ‘accident prone’ with their creativity, so they could take their audiences by the hand and show them grander vistas that are veiled from their awareness.

The intention of iBlues therefore is to create profound (or profanity with compassion), solid blues music that would be equally appreciated by audiences whether at 3 a.m. in some forgotten bar in the South side, or before having coffee at 9 a.m. at your local Starbucks.

Obviously, the injunctions of iBlues could also be applied to other music genres such as iRock, iPop, iMetal, iGrunge, iRap, or even iCountry. But those are other applications that need to be fleshed out in detail by their respective developers.

To conclude by using computer analogy, A-IOS is an indispensable template for growing integral artists. However, it will have its own share of patches and upgrades depending on hardware and/or user requirements. So the software (e.g. iBlues) running on its platform will need to adapt as well in order to take advantage of the new available features of the operating system (OS). And sometimes there are software that are written more advanced than the OS on which it runs. In this case, the OS will need to adapt, especially if the software had created a huge demand from users and/or a necessity to upgrade the current hardware. This is the essence of A-IOS and the beauty of Integral Theory. It is wide open in all directions, and limited only by the artist’s own infinite canvas.

dusted my guitar
passion for music comes forth
now I play the blues


This essay is a tribute to all the men and women who got the blues and took it to the next level.



[1] Dallman, Matthew. Constructing an Artistic Integral Operating System (IOS)

[2] Jimi Hendrix (1942–1970), U.S. rock musician. Quoted in Charles Shaar Murray, Crosstown Traffic, ch. 6 (1989).

[3] Oliver, Paul. The Story of the Blues, Northeastern University Press, Copyright 1969, 1997 by Paul Oliver, p. 1.

[4] Cooke, Deryck. The Language of Music, Oxford University Press 1959, p. 6.

[5] Stravinsky. Chronicle of My Life, translated from the French, pp. 91-92.

[6] Cooke, Deryck. The Language of Music, Oxford University Press 1959, p. 3.

[7] Yalom, Irvin M.D. Existential Psychotherapy, Basic Books 1980, p. 8.

[8] King, B.B. “How Blue Can You Get”, The Best of B.B. King, MCA Records Copyright 1987, 1973.

[9] De Leon, Rommel. “Bus Stop of Life”, unreleased composition.

[10] Vaughan, Stevie Ray. “Leave My Girl Alone (Live)”, The Essential Stevie Ray Vaughan and Double Trouble, Sony Music Entertainment, Inc. 2002.

[11] De Leon, Rommel. “3 Feet Away”, unpublished poem

[12] King, B.B. “How Blue Can You Get”, The Best of B.B. King, MCA Records Copyright 1987, 1973.

[13] Marshall, Wolf. The Guitar Style of Stevie Ray Vaughan, Hal Leonard Corporation, Copyright 1997, p. 5.

[14] De Leon, Rommel. “Decade 3”, unreleased composition—

[15] Sudo, Philip Toshio. Zen Guitar, FIRESIDE, Copyright 1997 by Philip Toshio Sudo, p. 14.

[16] Menn, Don (editor). Guitar Player Magazine Presents, Secret from the Masters, Backbeat Books, Copyright 1992 by Miller Freeman, Inc. p. 278.

[17] Leonard, George. Mastery – The Keys to Success and Long-term Fulfillment, Published by Plume, Copyright © George Leonard, 1991, p. 5.

[18] Leonard, George, and Murphy, Micheal. The Life We Are Given – A Long-term program fro realizing the potential of Body, Mind, Heart, and Soul, Penguim Putnam, Inc, Copyright © 1995 by George Leonard and Michael Murphy, p. 14-15.

[19] De Leon, Rommel. Existential Memoir: What the F&%k Now?, unpublished essay

[20] Coolmel’s, Insomniac Blues Chronicles

[21] Wholenote – The Online Guitar Community


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